This vocabulary collects all writing techniques and types as attested in the EAGLE BPN. A major classification problem is faced on this respect by epigraphists. In same cases the distinction between the method used to produced a text is used as a principle for a definition, in some other the name of the writ- ing technique is based on the result obtained, no matter of the method that was used. In particular Punctim, litt. Scariphatis and litt. Eminentibus are defintions of this second type.

A first distinction that should be made when defining a writing technique should be whether

  • The text has been obtained by adding material.
  • The text has been obtained subtracting material.
  • The text has been obtained modifying the material (as in cases of impression with a matrix which does not always involve subtraction of material)

Subtractive Techniques include texts which have been engraved, chiselled or graffiti. In these cases part of the surface of the material is removed to obtain the inscription. The following techniques among the one in the vocabulary would fit this definition:

  • scalpro
  • stylo
  • digito
  • terebro
  • caelo
  • a stecca

Additional Techniques include all those instances in which a different mate- rial is added on a base surface of the inscription. The following techniques among the one in the vocabulary would fit this definition:

  • penicillo
  • calamo
  • carbone
  • crustis
  • tessellis
  • litt. applicitis ex lamina vel ex brattea

There are indeed techniques which mix this two macro-types:

  • litt. Alveolatis
  • litt. Ageminatis

Impression Techniques involve soft or still soft materials and do not fit in any of the previous two categories. material might be removed but this is not the rule and does not by itself determine the inscription. The same type can be used for those inscriptions which are obtained by fusion or liquefaction of a material in a mold, as this is a particular type of modification of a material.

The following techniques among the one in the vocabulary would fit this definition:

  • impression techniques: signaculo, typo, signaculo candente (impression with heath)
  • techniques with a matrix: ex forma

Classification should also take into consideration the material on which they are applied which can for this classification purpose be hard or soft. In this cases in fact the technique is different not because of the method used but because of the particular status of the support in the moment in which the inscription was produced.

There are also inscriptions on ceramic which use the technique “scalpro” with capital letters imitating those of lapidary inscriptions. Scalpro would tehrefore be fine for these rare examples as well.

Hard techniques:

atramento, caelo, carbone, litteris ageminatis, litteris alveolatis, litteris applicitis, litteris eminentis, litteris ex cartha aurea, litteris scariphatis, pictura, punctim, scalpro, terebro, typo

Soft techniques:

Crustis, litteris ex forma, Signaculo, Stilo, Tessellis

URI: http://www.eagle-network.eu/voc/writing.html

Language: la, it, en, de, es, fr, bg, tr, el, ar, hr, fi, hu

Date of creation: 01/08/2013

Terms: 157